How is phase I metabolism regulated, and how does this relate to “resistance” against the effects of xenobiotics? How does the Ah receptor fit into this?
In phase I metabolism, enzymes introduce reactive and polar groups into their substrates which increses the polarity of molecules. Phase 1 reaction occurs by oxidation, reduction, hydolysis, cyclization, decyclization, addition of oxygen and removal of hydrogen carried out by cyctochrome P-450 dependent mixed function oxidases. This enzyme family catalyse the oxidative biotransformation of most drugs and other lipophilic xenobiotics Ah receptor is aryl hydrocarbon receptor which serves as key mediators of drug induced changes in phase 1 mtabolizing enzymes..
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