True or False
Nucleophilic substitution reactions occur at alkyl, alkenyl (vinylic), and aromatic carbons bonded to a halide.
Experiments involving the formation of a carbocation intermediate indicate that gas phase reactions have activation energies comparable to aqueous solutions. The stability of a carbocation is not influenced by surrounding solvent molecules.
Nucleophilic substitution via the SN1 or SN2 mechanism does not generally occur with vinyl or aromatic halides. Under certain conditions nucleophilic substitutions may occur, but via other mechanisms such as nucleophilic aromatic substitution.
For SN1 reactions the solvent's stabilizes the intermediate carbocation is of direct importance to its viability as a suitable solvent. Polar solvents increases the rate of SN1 reactions is a result of the polar solvent's solvating the reactant intermediate species, i.e., the carbocation, thereby decreasing the intermediate energy relative to the starting material.
Get Answers For Free
Most questions answered within 1 hours.