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The common-ion effect and buffer systems A buffer is a mixed solution of a weak acid...

The common-ion effect and buffer systems A buffer is a mixed solution of a weak acid or base, combined with its conjugate. Note that this can be understood essentially as a common-ion problem: The conjugate is a common ion added to an equilibrium system of a weak acid or base. The addition of the conjugate shifts the equilibrium of the system to relieve the stress of the added concentration of the common ion. In a solution consisting of a weak acid or base, the equilibrium shift also results in a pH shift of the system. It is the presence of the common ion in the system that results in buffering behavior, because both added H+ or OH− ions can be neutralized. Part D What is the pH change of a 0.300 M solution of citric acid (pKa=4.77) if citrate is added to a concentration of 0.135 M with no change in volume?

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