A set of simple distillation makes fractional distillation. The more volatile component gets vaporized and is separated as distillate. The less volatile components is collected as bottoms and is known as residue. Steam distillation is used in case of compounds which are less volatile. That is their vapor pressure is low and they can;t be boiled at high temperautre leading to they getting decomposed. The principlle of separation is based on the concept that when there are two immiscible liquids, the boilig point of the mixture is sum of the vapor pressures of individual compoents and as a result the mixture boils at a temperature less than the boiling point of both the components.
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