Question

The change in entropy of the system and the universe if one mole of argon is expanded isothermally and reversible at 300. K from 10.0 L to 20.0 L.

assuming the * expansion is free*.
Calculate:

a) entropy of the system in J/K

b) entropy of the universe in J/K

**Please explain each step.**

Answer #1

a) For reversible isothermal process with free expansion the change in entropy of the system is given by the formula.

N = 1 mole , V2 = 20 , V1 = 10

= 1 * 8.31447 * ln ( 20/10 ) = 8.31447 * ln(2) = 5.763 J/K.

b) Entropy of the Universe = entropy of the system + entropy of the surroundings

Entropy of the surroundings in a free expansion is 0 as there is no interaction between system and surroundings.

so Entropy of Universe = Entropy of the system

= 5.763 J/K.

Calculate the change in entropy for one mole of ideal gas which
expands from an initial volume of 2 L and initial temperature of
500 K to a final volume of 6 L under the following conditions.
P(initial) refers to the pressure when T(initial)= 500K,
V(initial)= 2 L.
a) Irreversible expansion against a constant pressure of
Pinitial/2
b) Irreversible expansion against a vacuum...a 'free
expansion'.
c) Adiabatic irreversible expansion against a constant pressure
of Pfinal
d) Adiabatic reversible expansion

One mole of an ideal gas is expanded isothermally and
irreversibly from an initial volume of 10.0 L to a final volume of
20.0 L at a pressure equal to the final pressure and a temperature
of 500 K. Calculate the value of w. Calculate the values of q.
Calculate the value of ΔS (system). Calculate the values of delta S
(surroundings). Calculate the values of ΔS (total).

1.3 mole of an ideal gas at 300 K is expanded isothermally and
reversibly from a volume V to volume 4V. What is
the change in entropy of the gas, in
J/K?

One mole of ideal gas initially at 300 K is expanded from an
initial pressure of 10 atm to a final pressure of 1 atm. Calculate
ΔU, q, w, ΔH, and the final temperature T2 for this expansion
carried out according to each of the following paths. The heat
capacity of an ideal gas is cV=3R/2.
1. A reversible adiabatic expansion.

Calculate the entropy change when argon at 298 K and 1 bar in a
container of volume 0.5 l is heated to a temperature of 373 K and
final volume of 1.0 l. Try to derive the complete expression
algebraically before putting in numbers.

Calculate the entropy change of the UNIVERSE when
2.054 moles of N2O(g)
react under standard conditions at 298.15 K.
Consider the reaction
N2O(g) +
3H2O(l)2NH3(g)
+ 2O2(g)
for which H° = 683.1 kJ and S° =
365.6 J/K at 298.15 K.
Is this reaction reactant or product favored under standard
conditions?
If the reaction is product favored, is it
enthalpy favored, entropy
favored, or favored by both enthalpy and entropy?
If the reaction is reactant favored, choose 'reactant
favored'.

Consider an ideal gas of 0.2 mole of argon atoms with an initial
volume of 0.8 liter (8*10-4 m 3 ) and a temperature of 300 K.
a) The gas is thermally isolated and allowed to expand
adiabatically to a final volume of 1 liter (10-3 m^3 ). How does
the entropy of the gas change? Please provide your reasoning.
b) Find the final temperature, ?? , of the gas after its
adiabatic expansion.
c) With the gas at the...

For each case determine the change in entropy for
the surroundings and the universe, when 1 mole of a
diatomic gas expands from its initial volume of 5 L and 31.5 ◦C
to:
CASE (a) a final volume of 25 L reversibly and
isothermically.
CASE (b) irreversibly and isothermically against an external
pressure of 1 atm.
CASE (c) a final volume of 25 L reversibly and adiabatically.
Yes, it is zero, but you have to demonstrate it.
CASE (d) irreversibly...

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system. Indicate whether the changes in the entropy of the
surroundings and of the universe will be negative or positive (5
pts each).
(a) One mole of ammonia gas decomposes to
nitrogen and hydrogen gases.
(b) 12 g of liquid water freezes.

Assume that one mole of a monatomic (CV,m = 2.5R) ideal gas
undergoes a reversible isobaric expansion at 1 bar and the volume
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per mole done, and the change in the molar internal energy, ΔUm,
the molar enthalpy, ΔHm, for this process. b) What are the entropy
changes ΔSm of the system and of the surroundings? Is this process
spontaneous? Justify your answer.

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