Bone healing and subsequent new bone formation after the implantation of a graft occur through the...

Bone healing and subsequent new bone formation after the implantation of a graft occur through the processes of osteogenesis, osteoinduction and/or osteoconduction. Design a synthetic bone graft/scaffold that can include these properties. In this situation, the graft must provide an interconnected structure through which new cells migrate and blood vessels form. Use the following information to answer the question. (Hint: Mention (1) what are the best compositional elemental components that can be used to mimic natural bone (2) What is the best architecture to engineer the synthetic bone graft (3) Describe the step by steps method (with image) to prepare your synthetic bone graft? And (4) Mention possible disadvantage/limitation of your graft design.

*Important note! allowable page: 1-1.5 page only)

Homework Answers

Answer #1

Answer : 1 :

An ideal bone graft or scaffold should be made of biomaterials that imitate the structure and properties of natural bone ECM, include osteoprogenitor cells and provide all the necessary environmental cues found in natural bone

combination of calcium aluminate with osteoinductive materials such as melatonin and platelet-rich plasma was also used to form a bone filler substitute with regenerating properties similar to that of natural bone

biocompatible dipeptide polyphosphazene-polyester blend (BLEND), which was electrospun to produce fibers in the diameter range of 50–500 nm to emulate dimensions of collagen fibrils present in the natural bone extracellular matrix this is also can be used in bone formation and ceramic scaffolds

some more are also.present like

Collagen , chitosans , silk , alginate , peptide hydrogels these are some natural polymers helpuful in bone formation and engeneering

Answer 2:synthetic bone graft which is artificially produced, bulks up or extends the supply of available autograft bone  (bone harvested from your own body). There are many extender biomaterials and tissues available, and their properties depend heavily on their origin and how they are processed

Alloplastic graft may be made from hydroxyapatite, a naturally occurring mineral (main mineral component of bone ), made from bioactive glass. Hydroxyapatite is a synthetic bone graft, which is the most used now due to its osteoconduction, hardness, and acceptability by bone

Answer 3:

Bone grafting is possible because bone tissue, unlike most other tissues, has the ability to regenerate completely if provided the space into which to grow. As native bone grows, it will generally replace the graft material completely, resulting in a fully integrated region of new bone. The biologic mechanisms that provide a rationale for bone grafting are osteoconduction, osteoinduction and osteogenesis.


Osteoconduction occurs when the bone graft material serves as a scaffold for new bone growth that is perpetuated by the native bone. Osteoblasts from the margin of the defect that is being grafted utilize the bone graft material as a framework upon which to spread and generate new bone. In the very least, a bone graft material should be osteoconductive.


Osteoinduction involves the stimulation of osteoprogenitor cells to differentiate into osteoblasts that then begin new bone formation. The most widely studied type of osteoinductive cell mediators are bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs).A bone graft material that is osteoconductive and osteoinductive will not only serve as a scaffold for currently existing osteoblasts but will also trigger the formation of new osteoblasts, theoretically promoting faster integration of the graft.


Osteopromotion involves the enhancement of osteoinduction without the possession of osteoinductive properties. For example, enamel matrix derivative has been shown to enhance the osteoinductive effect of demineralized freeze dried bone allograft (DFDBA), but will not stimulate new bone growth alone.


Osteogenesis occurs when vital osteoblasts originating from the bone graft material contribute to new bone growth along with bone growth generated via the other two mechanisms.

Answer 4 :

All surgical procedures involve risks of bleeding, infection, and reactions to anesthesia. Bone grafts carry these risks and others, including:

  • pain
  • swelling
  • nerve injury
  • rejection of the bone graft
  • inflammation
  • reabsorption of the graft
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