1. Nuclear DNA codes for many mitochondrial protein. So mutation in nuclear DNA also can cause mitochondrial dysfunction.
2. Mitochondrial DNA mutation can be caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS is produced by electron transport chain. Leakage of electrons from. Complex I and complex III reduces oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. This mutates mtDNA. MtDNA is also prone to mutation because there is no repair mechanism present in mitochondria.
3. When a cell has few mutated mtDNA and some unaltered mt DNA, it is known as heteroplasmy. When mother cell gives mitochondria to daughter cell, different proportion of mutated and non mutated mitochondria will be present in daughter cell. Higher the mutated mtDNA, higher chance of phenotypic expression in daughter cell
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