(At least) How many times did endoskeletons arise, and how do we know? (Topic: Deuterostomes/Echinoderms)
Endoskeleton is basically an internal support structure present in an animal that is composed on mineralized tissue. It is present on the inside of the body and develops within the skin or within the deeper body tissues. The deuterosomes are clade of animals that forms the Nephrozoa clade. In this the first opening becomes the anus. Echinoderms are the largest phylum which has no freshwater or terrestrial counterparts. It is an invertebrate marine that belongs to phylum Echinodermata and it is characterized by hard, spiny covering or skin. The endoskeletetons have arised many times and we know it from the characteristics but very minute change in the structure of the endoskeletons.
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