1. Which of the following in not directly involved in the production of proteins?
a. Golgi complex
b. Plasma membrane
c. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
2. A new coach tells his team that the reason they get fatigued after three minutes of exercise is because they do not have enough oxygen in their red blood cells. He has no data to support his position. Therefore his advice is?
a. Valid since he is an expert working with people
b. Not valid since he has not reproduced the findings
c. Not valid since he has not collected any data to support his claim
d. Valid since he knows how fatigued people act
3. A hypertonic cell is floating in a hypotonic solution. What happens to the cell?
a. Stays the same
b. Increases in size
c. Decreases in size
d. None of these answers are correct
4. The brain requires glucose to function. If oxygen is not available, would brain cells still be able to metabolize glucose?
a. Yes, since stress will cause insulin to be secreted which will increase blood glucose levels.
b. No, since glycolysis requires the mitochondria to produce ATP without oxygen
c. Yes, since the glucose can be anabolized into ATP without oxygen
d. Yes, to a limited extent, since glycolysis would be available to break down sugar
e. No, since the brain cells need oxidative phosphorylation which is not a process that is linked to glycolysis
5. Which of the following occurs when oxyhemoglobin reaches the capillaries of heart muscle?
a. Absorbs oxygen from the mitochondria
b. Releases oxygen which leaves the capillary and diffuses into the cell
c. Releases its oxygen which diffuses from the capillary to the nucleus
d. Releases its oxygen which diffuses from the mitochondria to the capillary
6. Which of the following is the ways in which nucleotide mutations lead to altered proteins?
a. One nucleotide is substituted by another nucleotide, which can cause an early stop codon to be incorporated into the amino acid sequence resulting in a truncated protein.
b. One nucleotide is replaced by another nucleotide, which can change an amino acid in the protein sequence
c. Nucleotides are inserted into a nucleotide sequence causing a frameshift in the sequence.
d. All three choices may cause mutations.
7. A cell is getting ready to divide and is starting DNA replication. During this process, helicase unzips the double helix by breaking the bonds between the ______________, the part of the nucleotides that is responsible for the formation of the double helix.
a. Phosphate groups
b. Pentose sugar
c. Phosphate group and pentose sugar
d. Nitrogenous bases
8. You go to visit your friend in the hospital who has a cancerous growth in the brain. The cancer is continue to spread throughout his body according to his physician. Which of the following processes will the physician try to stop to hault the growth of the cancer?
9. Which of the following is the explanation for the development of the baby due to environmental influences?
a. Genotype which causes the organisms to immediately respond to the environment
b. Phenotype which signals to the external environment that it changed
c. Epigenetic influences which directly alter the protein structure of enzymes
d. Epigenetic influences which influence the expression of different sets of nucleotides in the DNA
10. Which of the following is the end of the cleavage phase?
a. A fetus
b. Formation of a blastocyst
c. Implantation to the lining of the uterus
d. Fewer number of cells
11. All of the following are examples of reproductive cloning EXCEPT:
a. Removing the inner cell mass of a blastocyst embryo to create stem cells
b. Dolly the sheep
c. Trying to bring an extinct animal species back to life
d. Transferring Neanderthal DNA into an enucleated human egg, and allowing the embryo to develop so we can see what Neanderthals used to really look like
e. None of these answers are correct
12. Which of these following statements is TRUE?
a. Some animals currently living on earth are more evolved than other animals.
b. Any trait that gets selected is beneficial for the organism under all environmental conditions.
c. Natural selection is capable of producing perfect solutions to any environmental condition, as long as there's enough time.
d. Natural selection has been demonstrated to occur in wild populations.
e. Natural selection is the only mechanism of evolution that has been demonstrated.
13. Which of the following supports the role of the environment in influencing evolution?
a. The fossil record
c. Molecular evidence
14. During skeletal muscle contraction where does ATP function?
a. Forms the cross bridges
b. Attaches to myosin
c. Causes the thick filaments to form thin filaments
d. Attaches to actin
15. When a ligand attaches to a receptor, which of the following occurs first?
a. There is a change in shape of the ligand which stops the signaling cascade
b. There is a change in shape of the receptor which causes the ligand to be released
c. The ligand attaches to the receptor which triggers the signaling cascade
d. The ligand and receptor do not change shape but combine together to make a huge molecule that causes the signaling cascade
16. While playing soccer Jill is kicked in the knee. For the pain to be felt, the sensation must ______________ and is treated by applying to the skin this agent ______________?
a. Stay in the knee, ice
b. Go from the knee to the brain, alcohol
c. Go from the knee to the spinal cord , morphine
d. Go from the knee to the brain, coffee
17. Which of the following is a characteristic of methane?
a. A gas released by animals that has no effect on the environment since it is produced by biological organisms.
b. Lifetime in the atmosphere is brief (10-12years) and has more effect on global heat trapping than does carbon dioxide
c. Lifetime in the atmosphere is brief (10-12years) and has minimal effect of heat trapping.
d. A compound produced by a bacterium that inhibits nearby fungi.
18. One of the common signs of marijuana use is the"munchies" in which the user wants to consume large amounts of food. The best explanation of this phenomenon is which of the following?
a. Marijuana causes an inhibition of appetite in the frontal lobe
b. Marijuana active compound does not directly affect the brain but the stomach causing hunger pangs.
c. Marijuana directly affects the set point for appetite
d. Marijuana affects all systems in the body requiring more energy
1. Plasma membrane is not directly involved in the production of proteins.
2. Not valid since he has not collected any data to support his claim.
3. Increase in size.
5. Releases oxygen which leaves the capillary and diffuses into the cell (More preisely, oxyhemoglobin reaches the capillaries of the heart muscle, it releases its oxygen which diffuses from the capillary to the mitochondria.
6. All three choices may cause mutation.
9. Phenotype which signals to the external environment that it changed.
11. Dolly the sheep.
12. Some animals currently living on earth are more evolved than other animals.?
13. The fossil record supports the role of the environment in influencing evolution
14. Attaches to myosin.
17. Lifetime in the atmosphere is brief (10-12years) and has more effect on global heat trapping than does carbon dioxide
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