12. If the DNA repair mechanisms fail to correct a defect in nucleotide sequencing, a permanent change known as a __________________ may result. 13. As the enzyme helicase opens and “unzips” the two strands of DNA by breaking the hydrogen bonds, a Y-shaped ________________________ forms. a. Lagging strand b. Leading strand c. Okazaki fragment d. Replication fork 14. One large difference between transcription and translation between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is that, in prokaryotes: a. Translation occurs simultaneously with transcription b. Translocation occurs after transcription c. Both transcription and translation occur in the nucleus d. mRNA is not needed, as there is no nuclear membrane barrier e. mRNA is much more stable and long lasting 15. The _______________ provides the code, which is read and transmitted by ______________, to assemble all the __________________________ of the body. a. RNA, DNA, amino acids b. DNA, RNA, proteins c. Amino acids, DNA, RNA d. DNA, RNA, amino acids 16. For DNA to be transcribed, it must partially unwind to allow the mRNA to form. This area is referred to as the _______________________. a. Replication fork b. Translation bubble c. Promotor d. Transcription bubble 17. The type of RNA which transcribes the DNA is ________________. a. rRNA b. tRNA c. mRNA d. sRNA 18. The portion of mRNA that does not code for functional protein is referred to as a/an __________________. a. Intron b. Exon c. Promoter d. Transcription bubble 19. It takes _______________ nucleotides to code for one __________________. a. 3, mRNA b. 3, amino acid c. 2, protein d. 2, amino acid 20. The portion of a gene which codes for protein formation is referred to as a/an_____________. a. Nucleotide cap b. Intron c. Promoter d. Transcription bubble e. Exon 21. If the tRNA anticodon reads AUG CCU CAC AUC AUG, what was the original DNA template strand? a. ATG CCY CAC ATC ATG b. CAU AA AGA UGA GAC c. UTG CCU ACA GCU UAC d. AUG CCU CAC AUC AUG 22. How many amino acids would be in a peptide which was coded for by this sequence of codons: 5’ AUGCCUCACAUCAUG 3’ ? a. 2 b. 3 c. 4 d. 5 e. 6 23. The _______________ is an organelle composed of a small subunit which stabilizes the mRNA template, and a large subunit which binds to tRNA, tasked with transporting amino acids. 24. A codon is composed of ______ nucleotides, which will code for one of ___________ amino acids, which will create hundreds of thousands of different proteins. a. 2, 20 b. 2, 16 c. 3, 20 d. 3, 18 e. 4, 20 25. The gene expression for protein synthesis is prokaryotes is: a. Continuous b. Controlled by whether or not the protein is needed c. Occurs only at the translational level d. Occurs only at the epigenetic level 26. In a eukaryotic cell, transcription only occurs in the ______________ and translation happens only in the ____________________. a. Nucleus, nucleolus b. Cytoplasm, nucleus c. Nucleus, cytoplasm 27. You have the same DNA in the muscle cells of your big toe as you do in the cells of your pancreas and brain. What protein is used to build which cell is regulated by _____________________. 28. What is the purpose of Biotechnology? a. Use of technology to change the genetic makeup of living things for human purposes b. Used for improving livestock and crops since the beginning of agriculture through selective breeding c. The primary applications of this technology are in medicine and in agriculture d. All of these 29. Genetic engineering has successfully transferred genes from eukaryotic cells into which of the following organism(s)? a. Bacteria b. Animals c. Plants d. All of these 30. The name of the small DNA fragment used to determine if the complementary sequence is present in a DNA sample. a. Plasmid b. Probe c. Dolly d. Clone 31. What is the name coined for an entire set of DNA molecules in the nucleus of eukaryotic organisms? 32. What is the small circular DNA molecule that replicates independently of the chromosomal DNA in bacteria? a. Plasmid b. Probe c. Dolly d. Clone 33. What is a genetically modified organism (GMO)? a. A hybrid organism b. A plant with certain genes removed c. An organism with an artificially altered genome d. Any agricultural organism produced by breeding or biotechnology 34. What carries a gene from one organism into a bacteria cell? a. Polymerase chain reaction b. A restriction enzyme c. An electrophoresis gel d. Plasmid 35. Which of the following processes of testing is used for the presence of disease-causing genes? a. Genetic testing b. Genetic engineering c. Gene therapy d. Genetic recombination 36. Which technique is used to cure inheritable diseases by replacing mutant genes with good genes? a. Genetic diagnosis b. Genetic testing c. Genetic therapy d. All of these 37. What is produced on a large scale by cultivating and manipulating fungal cells? a. Hormones b. Vaccine c. Antibiotics 38. What are the products obtained by recombinant DNA technology? a. Hormones b. Vaccine c. Antibiotics d. All of these 39. What is the study of entire genomes, including the complete set of genes, their nucleotide sequence and organization, and their interactions within a species and with other species? 40. Which intracellular organelle DNA mutates at a rapid rate and is often used to study evolutionary relationships?
12. If the DNA repair mechanisms fail to correct a defect in nucleotide sequencing, a permanent change known as a mutation may result.
13. As the enzyme helicase opens and “unzips” the two strands of DNA by breaking the hydrogen bonds, a Y-shaped d. Replication fork forms.
14. a. Translation occurs simultaneously with transcription
15. b. DNA, RNA, proteins
16. d. Transcription bubble
17. c. mRNA
18. a. Intron
19. a. 3, mRNA
20. e. Exon
21. a. ATG CCU CAC ATC ATG
22. AUG CCU CAC AUC AUG => Met-Pro-His-Ile-Met
23. The ribosome is an organelle composed of a small subunit which stabilizes the mRNA template, and a large subunit which binds to tRNA, tasked with transporting amino acids.
24. c. 3, 20
26. c. Nucleus, cytoplasm
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