Please answer all questions if you can. Thank you in
1. Compare and contrast how secondary structure forms in
folded proteins and folded RNA molecules
2. Assume that a bacterial genome contains 5000 genes. Do a
“back of the envelope” calculation to estimate the size (number of
nucleotides) of the genome of this bacterium. In your answer
briefly demonstrate your knowledge of genes.
3. Describe the design of the DNA sequence of an artificial
chromosome in a typical eukaryote for expressing an engineered
transmembrane protein in the plasma membrane. In your answer list
the 9 sequence features this DNA fragment requires to work, briefly
state the function of each, and briefly indicate what would go
wrong if that sequence feature was missing.
4. A number of antibiotics inhibit the function of ribosomes.
Why can some of these antibiotics cause side effects in which
mitochondrial function is impaired?
5. How is allostery involved in the regulation of gene
6. In the process of intracellular membrane vesicle transport
in Eukaryotes neither the formation of such transport vesicles nor
their fusion with a target membrane occur spontaneously in the
cell. Briefly describe the machinery that cells use to achieve
these two processes
7. List the two types of genes that are often damaged in
cancer cells, and give an illustrative example of the normal
function of these two classes of cancer-related genes.
8. Describe and explain three ways in which a fertilized egg
acquires a front and back, a head and a rear starting from a
single, seemingly homogeneous cell.
9. Briefly describe two entirely distinct processes involving
protein degradation that are of central importance for the
functioning of eukaryotic cells that form the body of animals. In
your answer include a brief description of the key components
involved in these processes. Also include a brief description of
how these processes aid in the overall function of the
10. what enzymes do you expect to be present in the lumen of
the endoplasmic reticulum?