Question

Please answer all questions if you can. Thank you in advanced! 1. Compare and contrast how...

Please answer all questions if you can. Thank you in advanced!


1. Compare and contrast how secondary structure forms in folded proteins and folded RNA molecules
2. Assume that a bacterial genome contains 5000 genes. Do a “back of the envelope” calculation to estimate the size (number of nucleotides) of the genome of this bacterium. In your answer briefly demonstrate your knowledge of genes.
3. Describe the design of the DNA sequence of an artificial chromosome in a typical eukaryote for expressing an engineered transmembrane protein in the plasma membrane. In your answer list the 9 sequence features this DNA fragment requires to work, briefly state the function of each, and briefly indicate what would go wrong if that sequence feature was missing.
4. A number of antibiotics inhibit the function of ribosomes. Why can some of these antibiotics cause side effects in which mitochondrial function is impaired?
5. How is allostery involved in the regulation of gene expression?
6. In the process of intracellular membrane vesicle transport in Eukaryotes neither the formation of such transport vesicles nor their fusion with a target membrane occur spontaneously in the cell. Briefly describe the machinery that cells use to achieve these two processes
7. List the two types of genes that are often damaged in cancer cells, and give an illustrative example of the normal function of these two classes of cancer-related genes.
8. Describe and explain three ways in which a fertilized egg acquires a front and back, a head and a rear starting from a single, seemingly homogeneous cell.
9. Briefly describe two entirely distinct processes involving protein degradation that are of central importance for the functioning of eukaryotic cells that form the body of animals. In your answer include a brief description of the key components involved in these processes. Also include a brief description of how these processes aid in the overall function of the organism.
10. what enzymes do you expect to be present in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum?

Homework Answers

Answer #1

1) the secondary structure of protein is consist of alpha helix and beta pleated sheet .

This is based on hydrogen bonding between the oxygen and nitrogen and Hydrogen atoms of peptide bonds .

This is complex than primary structure.

In case of RNA also , RNA secondary structure is also complex than primary and ,

Here also complementary sequences is needed to fold back of RNA and makes hydrogen bonds between the nitrogen base of RNA ..

So,in protein there is no such complementary whereas in RNA there must have complementarity between bases.

In protein secondary structure is required to make tertiary structure which is the basis of their function but in RNA secondary structure is not present in all types of RNA like mRNA doesn't have, but tRNA have .it helps in various function of tRNA but there is no need of this in mRNA ..thank you

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