Explain the principle of “differential gene expression” and how different genes are expressed in different cell types. Describe in detail the two main mechanisms of the transcriptional regulation of gene expression. If you were going to “design” a transcription factor with an unlimited number of protein domains, how would you design this transcription factor so that it could take care of all of the transciptional regulation/expression of the muscle gene myoD.
Genes are expressed through the process of transcription, followed by translation.
Each of the cells in an organism contains the same genetic material, i.e., the same set of genes. However, different types of cells look different and perform different tasks. This is because, in different cells, a different set of genes is expressed. This is the principle of differential gene expression, "different genes are expressed in different cells".
In different cells, a different set of genes is activated. This is because genes are expressed through the action of a different set of transcription factors and ligands. A particular set of transcription factors activate the expression of a particular set of genes, and the other set of genes remains unexpressed.
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