Question

The picture shown below shows variation among three individuals with respect to 4 nucleotides - AGAT....

The picture shown below shows variation among three individuals with respect to 4 nucleotides - AGAT. What do you think what type of variation is this?

AGAT different repeat numbers in different individuals .png

Minisatellite

Single nucleotide polymorphism

Short Tandem Repeats

Which of the following statements is TRUE about DNA matching?

Typical difference between the genomes of human beings and Chimpanzees is estimated to be 25 %

Typical difference between the genomes of human beings and Drosophila is   estimated to be 20%

Typical difference between the genomes of two individuals is estimated to be 5 %

Typical difference between the genomes of two individuals is estimated to be 0.6%

The old method of DNA profiling/DNA fingerprinting was:

PCR

RFLP

Recombination

Which of the following is NOT a step in PCR reaction?

Restriction Digestion

Annealing

Denaturation

Extension

Which method is a popular method for DNA profiling, now a days?

PCR of STRs

PCR of DNA for insulin making gene

PCR of DNA for Single nucleotide polymorphism

After restriction digestion of a DNA molecule, following fragments were generated - 500 bps, 350 bps, 100 bps and 40 bps. If you load all these fragments on an agarose gel, this fragment_(a)___________ would move farthest and this fragment _(b)___________ would move slowest under the influence of electricity?

(a)500 bps, (b) 40 bps

(a) 40 bps, (b) 350 bps

(a) 40 bps, (b) 500 bps

(a) 100 bps, (b) 350 bps

The picture shows RFLP analysis of DNA of a child (an offspring), her mom and three males. Which one of the following three males is BIOLOGICAL FATHER of the offspring?

RFLP analysis.png

Male 1

Male 3

Male 2

What is the name of the process which is used to amplify target DNA many many folds? This process requires addition of Primers, nucleotides and DNA polymerase.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

Agarose gel electrophoresis

Restrcition Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP)

Restriction Digestion

In US, the standard set of 13 STRs is known as:

CODIS

NDIS

LDIS

Which of the following statements about STRs is False?

These are 2-9 base nucleotides long.

Variation in the number of repeats is used in preparing DNA profiles.

They consist of differences in DNA sequences that are only one nucleotide long.

Clusters of STRs are found widely distributed on all human chromosomes.

Which of the following statements is NOT TRUE about findings from Human Genome Project?

15 % of the DNA codes for Protein and rest 85% is non coding DNA

Human genome is made up of 3.2 billion nucleotide base pairs

Repetitive DNA makes most of the non coding DNA.

Our DNA has 20,000-25,000 genes

Which of the following is NOT a goal of Human Genome Project?

To find the location of all genes in our genomes

To compile lists of expressed genes and non expressed sequences.

To find out drugs for the treatment of genetic disorders.

To compare genes and their proteins among different species

Following are the steps of gene therapy. Pick the option from multiple choice that SHOWS the correct order of gene therapy steps:

i. Healthy cells are screened, ii. Normal genes are inserted into the removed body cells by using genetically modified viruses, iii. Cells from infected individual are removed from the body, iv. Healthy cells are returned to the body.

iii, ii, i, iv

ii, i, iii, iv

i, ii, iii, iv

iv, iii, ii, I

Reema was diagnosed with pancreas cancer which has now spread to her other body parts like lungs, liver etc. Which ONE of the following terms CAN'T be used to describe her cancer?

Highly likely, her cancer in pancreas started as a benign tumor

Her cancer might have started as malignant tumor

Her cancer is invasive and is spreading to other body parts.

Her cancer is a metastatic cancer

Scientists have genetically modified an ornamental plant to make it GLOW. They used a gene editing tool which is new and widely used, very precise, promising, and much cheaper to use. Which 'genetic modification tool' they might have used for this purpose?

Gene therapy

by using genetically modified bacteria

CRISPR

by using genetically modified viruses

In 1990 a young girl, suffering from Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disorder (SCID), had been successfully treated with:

PCR

Restriction Digestion

CRISPR

Gene Therapy

Question 184 pts

Which of the following is NOT a step in signal transduction?

Response

Reception

Transduction

Induction

Which of the following is NOT a cause of cancer?

Perfect proofreading of DNA by DNA polymerase during replication.

Chromosomal abnormalities

Environmental factors such as smoking, vehicle exhaust etc.

Longevity (long life)

Which one of the following is NOT a characteristic of Polygenic traits?

There are always two distinct classes of phenotypes associated with a polygenic trait.

The phenotypic classes in a polygenic trait follow a bell shape curve.

All the genes have an additive effect on the phenotype.

Polygenic traits are controlled by more than one genes.

Which one of the following is a mutifactorial disorder associated with behavior?

Schizophrenia

Cystic Fibrosis

Fragile X mental Retardation (FMR)

Huntington

Which one of the following disorders are associated with more numbers of CAG nucleotide repeats in the related gene?

Sickle cell anemia

Schizophrenia

Cystic Fibrosis

Huntington

Nyugen is curious to know his maternal and paternal ancestry. What type of DNA should be tested for this purpose ? (Mark all applicable for full credit)

Y chromosome DNA

Mitochondrial DNA

X chromosome DNA

Autosomal DNA

Two types of genes that control the checkpoints in a cell cycle are: (Mark all applicable for full credit)

Tumor-activating genes

BRCA 1

Proto-oncogenes

Tumor-suppressor genes

Mutations in which of the following genes can lead to Breast cancer? (Mark all applicable for the Full credit).

BRCA2

VANGL1

MAOA

BRCA1

Which one of the following, probably, is NOT a reason behind change in genotype frequency of a disease in a population?

Eating GMO food.

Founder effect

Mutation

Heterozygote advantage

Which one of the following statements is NOT TRUE about RAS protein?

Mutated RAS protein remains 'ON' all the times and can lead to various types of cancers.

RAS protein plays an important role in signal transduction pathway

Mutated RAS protein is a major reason behind skin cancers.

RAS protein is coded by an Proto-oncogene

Following picture explains different proteins formed by the same gene. What is the name of that phenomenon?MAny different Proteins from same gene explained.png

Alternative Splicing

Transcription

Translation

All of the following are uses for the Hardy-Weinberg equation EXCEPT

it can be used to calculate how common the alleles are in a populations

it can estimate the frequency of an allele in a population

It explains why cystic fibrosis is common in typhoid prone areas.

that knowing the frequency of the alleles, one can calculate the frequency of carriers.

Question

If 1 in 300 people are affected for Tay-Sach's disease in a population, what will be the percentage of carriers in that population? Solve by Hardy-Weinberg Equation.

20%

6%

94%

11 %

Question

Which of the following statements DOES NOT describe relationship between malaria and sickle cell anemia?

Carriers of sickle cell anemia are resistant to Malaria

People with sickle cell anemia are resistant to Malaria

There is almost complete overlap in the geographic distributions of the two diseases.

The same parasite is responsible for both diseases.

Which one of the following statements is WRONG about alternative Splicing?

Alternative Splicing takes place during pre-mRNA processing.

Exons are removed and introns are patched together to give rise to different proteins.

In alternative splicing different exons on mRNA are joined together in different order to give rise to different proteins.

During alternative splicing, introns are removed from exons.

Question

Which of the following statements about multifactorial traits is TRUE?

A multifactorial trait involves interactions of genes with the environment.

The inheritance of multifactorial traits exhibits simple dominance and recessiveness.

Threshold model explains the role of genotypes on the phenotypes

Multifactorial traits show discontinuous variation in phenotypes

Question

Which of the following statements about Polygenic traits is FALSE?

A wide range of phenotypes results from polygenic traits.

Height is a polygenic trait

The phenotypic distribution of polygenic traits is often a bell-shaped curve.

No. of phenotypic classes increase with increase in number of genes controlling the trait.

Question

Which of the following is NOT a Multifactorial Disease/trait?

Skin Color

Club Foof

Intelligence

Blood type

Question

Which of the following is NOT linked to aggression in human beings?

Mutation in serotonin receptor gene

Monoamine Oxidase type A gene

Karyotype XYY

FMR 1 gene

Question

Which of the following is a common reason behind several behavioral disorders such as Schizophrenia, Huntington, Bipolar disorder, Aggression?

Environmental influences on the body cells

Mutations in the genes that are involved directly or indirectly in nerve transmission across synapses

Aging

Smoking

Question

Which one of the following is NOT a part of a Nerve cell?

Axon

Nerve endings

Actin sheath

Dendrites

Which of the following statements is NOT TRUE about different types of Cancers?

Chromosomal abnormalities can never lead to cancer

Genetically modified HSV virus has been approved for treating Melanoma

Smoking is the leading cause for lung cancer

Some viruses like HPV can cause cervical cancer

Homework Answers

Answer #1

Que. Which of the following is not a cause of cancer? Ans- perfect proofreading of DNA by Dna polymerase during replication.

Que. Which of the following is not a step in signal transduction? Ans- induction.

Que. Which of the following is a multifactorial disorder associated with behaviour? Ans- schizophrenia.

Que. Which one of the following disorders are associated with more numbers of CAG nucleotide repeats in the related gene? Ans- Huntington.

Que. Which one of the following is not a part of a nerve cell? Ans- actin sheath.

Que. Which of the following statement is not true about different types of cancer? Ans- chromosomal abnormalities can never lead to cancer.

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