1. An antigen is
A. a molecule that can elicit an immune response.
B. a nucleic acid only.
C. a protein or nucleic acid.
D. a protective protein that the immune system produces.
2. The human leukocyte antigen genes are on the
A. short arm of chromosome 6.
B. long arm of chromosome 18.
C. short arm of chromosome 2.
D. long arm of chromosome 6.
3. Identifying combinations of _____ alleles is useful in tissue
typing, establishing identity, and estimating disease risk.
4. The difference between innate immunity and adaptive immunity
A. adaptive immunity attacks pathogens; innate immunity attacks microbes.
B. innate immunity targets cancers and transplants; adaptive immunity targets viruses and bacteria.
C. innate immunity is fast and generalized; adaptive immunity is slow and specific.
D. adaptive immunity releases cytokines; innate immunity produces antibodies.
5. Inflammation helps to fight infection by
A. creating an environment in the body that is hostile to pathogens.
B. producing antibodies that kill viruses and bacteria.
C. limiting the number of phagocytes at the infection site.
D. producing collectins, cytokines, and red blood cells.
6. All of the following are cytokines except
C. tumor necrosis factor.
7. People do not develop a secondary immune response to
A. the immune system mutates from season to season.
B. secondary immune responses are only possible against bacteria.
C. the primary immune response is sufficient to protect against flu.
D. the causative viruses mutate each season.
8. The primary function of plasma cells is to
A. secrete antibodies.
B. remember immune responses.
C. secrete cytokines.
D. protect phagocytes.
9. Which type of white blood cell secretes specific antibodies?
A. T cell
C. B cell
10. _____ bonds hold together the polypeptide chains that form
11. The part of an antigen binding site on an antibody that
binds antigen is the
12. The constant region of an antibody molecule is
A. the binding site for antigens.
B. part of the heavy chains only.
C. the same in all antibodies of a certain type.
D. the binding site for two antigens.
13. Antibody diversity is a consequence of
A. the huge number of antibody genes.
B. shuffling of antibody genes into different combinations during B cell development.
C. differential regulation of antibody gene expression under different circumstances.
D. the many types of viruses that exist in nature.
14. The functions of antibodies include
A. activating complement, inactivating pathogens, and clumping pathogens.
B. activating macrophages, stimulating mast cells, and increasing the white blood cell count.
C. creating a warm and swollen area near the site of infection, which harms the pathogens.
D. causing B cells to bind to T cells, forming clumps that are visible to the immune system.
15. Antibody production begins
A. in a fetus as its bone marrow develops.
B. in a fetus in response to maternal antigens.
C. immediately after birth.
D. after birth, after exposure to foreign antigens.
16. Helper T cells secrete
17. Cluster-of-differentiation antigens are found on
A. B cells, where they determine the antibody types that are made.
B. B cells, where they make recognition of self antigens on macrophages possible.
C. T cells, enabling them to recognize foreign antigens on macrophages.
D. macrophages, enabling them to link with both B and T cells.
18. Cytotoxic T cells target
A. cancer cells and virally infected cells.
B. skin cells and blood cells.
C. bacterial cells and fungal cells.
D. B cells and macrophages.
19. Severe combined immune deficiencies (SCID) affect both
A. humoral and cellular immunity.
B. white blood cells and red blood cells.
C. mast cells and macrophages.
D. helper B cells and cytotoxic B cells.
20. In a less severe form of combined immune
deficiency, the individual
A. has normal numbers of T and B cells.
B. has no white blood cells.
C. has some T cells but lacks B cells.
D. lacks both T and B cells.
1. A. a molecule that can elicit an immune response.
An antigen is any molecule that stimulates an immune response. It is a foreign substance.
2. A. short arm of chromosome 6
HLA genes are present on the p arm or the short arm of chromosome 6 in humans.
3. B. HLA
Identifying combinations of HLA alleles is useful in tissue typing, establishing identity, and estimating disease risk.
This identification is important before doing tissue transplant.
4. C. innate immunity is fast and generalized; adaptive immunity is slow and specific.
Both systems attack pathogen, but innate immune system acts faster than the adaptive immune system and also innate immune system is less specific.
Get Answers For Free
Most questions answered within 1 hours.