1. What pathway in animals uses a negative feedback strategy to regulate blood pressure, heart rate, muscle tone, and various digestive and reproductive functions?
A. the oxytocin signaling pathway
B. the secretin signaling pathway
C. the thyroid cascading pathway
D. the growth hormone pathway
2. It can be shown that the positive feedback pathway of oxytocin signaling amplifies the production of milk because
A. more milk is produced in response to the infant’s suckling.
B. less milk is produced in response to the infant’s suckling.
C. mammary glands circulate hormones throughout the body.
D. mammary glands produce additional amounts of neurotransmitters.
Answer- C thyroid cascading pathway.
Thyroid hormone causes activation of a series of other hormones which in turn activates a neuroendocrine cell. For example in glucose metabolism, it atimulates release of corticotropin releasing hormone , which in turn activates release of glucocortcoids in blood ,when the blood nevel of corticoids become normal, the CRh release is stopped . It involves negative feedback.
A. More milk is produced in reaponse to infant's suckling.
Infants suckling sends impulses to the hypothalamo pituitary axis ,which causes release of oxytocin into blood ,this in turn causes the mammary glands to eject milk and the infant continues feeding by suckling and the process continues.
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