1. Actin filaments and microtubules have certain similarities. Which one of the following statements would NOT be a similarity between acting filaments and microtubules?
a. They are both formed from globular protein monomers.
b. They are both unstable and can form and then fall apart.
c. They both involved bidding of a nucleotide triphosphate.
d. They both form a hollow tube-like structure.
2. Which of the following characteristic is NOT TRUE regarding the function and structure of the enzyme ATP synthase?
a. The ATP synthase uses the potential energy in the H+ gradient to make ATP
b. The ATP synthase rotates when H+ is transported through it
c. The ATP synthase is located in the outer membrane of the mitochondria
d. The ATP synthase uses inorganic phosphate to make the ATP
3. During the electron transport a gradient of protons (H+) is formed across the mitochondrial membrane, which is normally impermeable to protons. If cells were exposed to an agent that causes the membrane to become freely permeable to protons, which of the following effects would you expect to observe?
a. The ratio of ATP and ADP (ATP/ADP) in the cytoplasm would decrease (get smaller).
b. NADH would build up.
c. Carbon Dioxide production would cease.
d. The consumption of oxygen would fall.
4. Oxidative phosphorylation of mitochondrial electron transport and the light reaction of photosynthesis are similar in all of the following ways expect ONE.
a. Both use ATP synthase to produce ATP
b. Both involve an electron transport chain
c. Both require high energy electrons from coenzyme NADH (NADPH) to keep going.
d. Both use small membrane associated electron carriers.
5. Glycolysis and the citric acid cycle respond to levels of NAD+, NADH, ATP, and ADP. That is, if the ratio of ATP/ADP goes up or down, the rate of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle respond accordingly. What is the likely mechanistic basis for this response.
a. Certain reactions in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle can work in reverse, so if there is enough energy (ATP) the pathways go backwards.
b. The electron transport chain senses the levels of NAD+, NADH, ATP, and ADP and can produce compounds that alter the rate of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle by affecting specific enzymes in the pathways (turning them up or down in activity).
C. NAD+, NADH, ATP and ADP can act to regulate specific enzymes in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle - turning them up or down in activity.
d. NAD+, NADH, ATP, and ADP enters into fermentation and the products of fermentation alters the rate of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle.
PLEASE ANSWER THE QUESTIONS ABOVE. I WILL RATE!!
1. Statement a: Actin filaments and microtubules are formed by the polymerization of globular proteins,
Statement b: Actin filaments and microtubules are both unstable, both can assemble and disassemble
Statement c: the subunits of actin filaments and microtubules bind and hydrolyze nucleoside triphosphates
Statement d: only microtubules form hollow tube-like structure.
Correct option is (d)
2. ATP synthase is located in the inner membrane of mitochondria
Correct option is (c)
3. The ATP/ADP ratio in the cytoplasm would fall with the inherent permeability of the inner membrane to protons.
Correct option is (a)
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