Question

1. Define the following terms: a) macromolecule b) monomer c) polymer 2. For each of the...

1. Define the following terms:

a) macromolecule

b) monomer

c) polymer

2. For each of the biological molecules in the table below, describe its functions and list a specific example of a monomer and a polymer. Be sure to look at the examples of structural formulas shown in your book (e.g., Fig 3.5, 3.6).

Macromolecule

Functions

Monomer

Polymer

Carbohydrate

Protein

Protein

(we will learn the names of some specific proteins later)

Nucleic acid

3. When monomers are joined together to make polymers, this reaction is called a __________________ reaction.

4. When polymers are broken down into their monomers, this reaction is called a ____________________ reaction.

5. Lipids are also important biological molecules, but aren’t considered to be made up of monomers.

      a) List the functions of lipids.

      b) List two specific examples of lipids.  

6. List the 4 most common elements found in living organisms. (Hint: refer to the structural formulas you have been looking at).

7. Which of the three subatomic particles are directly involved in chemical reactions?

8. Define the following terms:

a) solvent

b) solute

c) aqueous solution

d) pH scale

e) acid

f) base

9. List the four properties of water that make it important to living organisms.

10. Proteins are very important molecules that have a variety of functions.

a) Amino acids are made up of a central carbon attached to a hydrogen atom and three other groups. What are the three groups that make up an amino acid? Which parts (groups) of the amino acid structure are the same for each amino acid? Which part is different?

b) What makes a polypeptide (chain of amino acids) become a functional protein?

c) What would happen to a protein’s structure in the stomach, where the gastric juices are at pH 2 (an unfavorable pH for most proteins)?

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