Final Review Sheet-Physical Anthropology Part 1 (matching-in class) 1. Be able to distinguish the focus areas...

Final Review Sheet-Physical Anthropology

Part 1 (matching-in class)

1. Be able to distinguish the focus areas between the fields of Anthropology and their subfields (i.e. forensic anthropology, paleoanthropology, primatology)

2. Differentiate and identify the components of the DNA molecule and RNA molecule

3. What is the centromere?

4. Be able to define the terms gene, genotype, phenotype (i.e. ABO blood typing)

5. Be familiar with Mendel and his pea plant experiments and be able to use a Punnett square

6. Understand the differences between homologies and analogies

7. Understand intraspecific vs. interspecific variation

8. Be familiar with H. erectus fossil evidence at Zhoukoudian

9. Distinguishing between Oldowan, Acheulian, & Mousterian tool traditions

10. Be familiar with how the Neandertal handled their dead

11. What is the archetype name was given to the fossils in France (dated 30,000 y.a.)?

12. What is significant about the Abrigo do Lagar Velho fossil specimen in Portugal?

13. What is significant about the Shanidar fossils?

14. What is the “grandmother hypothesis”?

15. What is the “telomere hypothesis”?

16. How is race defined in modern biological usage?

17. Human Genome Project, sexual dimorphism, adaptive radiation, punctuated equilibrium,


18. Be able to identify fossil remains by key names and genus/species classifications from

Sahelanthropus tchadensis up through to modern Homo sapiens ---see handouts from class extra credit matching section

Part 2 (multiple choice-online)

1. Be able to identify the organelle, steps, and molecules involved in protein synthesis

2. Differentiate between the two types of eukaryotic cells in the body

3. Describe how the term fitness is used in relation to natural selection

4. Be able to describe natural selection, gene flow, genetic drift, and mutation as forces of evolution

5. Define species (biological)

6. Understand steps and differentiate between the end products of mitosis and meiosis

7. Be familiar with the process of cell replication

8. Understand the meanings and differences between homozygous, heterozygous, recessive, dominant, co-dominant, Mendelian traits, polygenic traits

9. Primate characteristics are associated with adaptation to what kind of environment?

10. Why is grooming important to nonhuman primates?

11. Be familiar with a primates relationship with their infants (basic primate social unit)

12. Understand the differences between Old and New World monkeys in relation to having or not having a prehensile tail

13. Why do we study nonhuman primates?

14. Examples of primates, hominids, hominoids, prosimians, anthropoids, monkeys, and apes

15. Understand the differences between ancestral (primitive) and modified (derived) traits

16. Know examples and differences between the two types of dating methods used

17. Identify deliberate vs. autonomic communication of nonhuman primates

18. What are affiliative nonhuman primate behaviors?

19. What are the different Primate locomotion modes? ( be able to give corresponding examples & corresponding bone proportions)

20. What are the steps of the scientific method?

21. What trends define the Order of Primates?

22. Does the environment have an influence on growth and development?

23. Define exons vs. introns, homologous chromosomes, sister chromatids, recombination

24. When did the diversification of mammals occur?

25. Why was H. habilis identified as a different genus than the Australopithecines?

26. What are the differences between the “robust” and “gracile” australopithecines (cranial features, teeth, diet)

27. Traditionally, what is the name of the 1st species to move out of Africa?

28. Be able to describe the Nariokotome fossil find

29. Be familiar with the general geographic areas H. erectus fossils were discovered

30. What do the Dmanisi fossils indicate

31. The term Homo ergaster refers to fossils found where?

32. What are the contributions of Alfred Russel Wallace, Gregor Mendel, Thomas Malthus,

John Ray, Charles Darwin, and Carolus Linnaeus

33. Be familiar with the culture of Neandertals (hunting, symbolic behavior)

34. Describe the morphological features of Neandertals fossils-- (cranial & postcranial features)

35. Where are Neandertal fossils found?

36. Be able to differentiate between the three models used to explain the presence of modern

Homo sapiens

37. What is significant about the La Chapelle-aux-Saints skeleton?

38. What’s the significance of the sites at Lascaux and Altimara (hint: cave paintings)

39. Define acclimatization, melanin, pathogen, and pandemic

40. What is the importance of melanin, exposure to UV radiation, rickets, folate, and infectious

Disease to understanding human variation?

41. What does the HIV virus attack?

42. At birth, what % of the brain is the adult size?

43. What is the significance of preagriculture diet compared to the diet of today?

44. Understand the different life cycles discussed in your text and the unique aspect of the human lifecycle

45. What is the importance of social relationships for nonhuman primates?

46. What is the taxonomy for humans---order, family, genus, and species?

47. Define hyperplasia and hypertrophy

48. Who are the most primitive primates?

Homework Answers

Answer #1

1. Forensic anthroplogy

This is an application of anatomical science of anthropology. This field aids to identify the remains of burned or mutilated body of dceased individuals from an accident.


This field assists to understand the early development of anatomically modern humans.This mainly deals with analysing and comparing the DNA.


This is a field of scientific study of primates.

2. DNA (Deoxy ribonucleic acid)

It does not contain Oxygen at the second carbon atom of the ribose sugar. Thymine is present in DNA.

RNA (Ribonucleic acid)

It contains Oxygen at the second carbon atom of the ribose sugar. Uracil is presnt in RNA.

3. A constricted point where the two chromosomes join is called as centromere.

4. Gene; Part of DNA that codes for protein.

Genotype; Genetic make up of a trait. IAIA

Phenotype; Characteristic appearance of a trait. A blood type.

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