Question

# Case Study: Normal Levels of Substances in the Arterial Blood: pH       7.40 + 0.05 pCO2...

Case Study:

Normal Levels of Substances in the Arterial Blood:

 pH 7.40 + 0.05 pCO2 (partial pressure of carbon dioxide) 40 mm Hg pO2 (partial pressure of oxygen) 90 - 100 mm Hg Hemoglobin - O2 saturation 94 - 100 % [HCO3-] 24 meq / liter

A visit to grandma found her with complaints of severe nausea and weakness. She has had problems with peptic ulcer disease in the past and has been having similar pain for the past two weeks. Rather than go to the doctor she decided to deal with the problem herself and she said she has been dealing with this by drinking milk and consuming large quantities of TUMS (calcium carbonate). You insisted she go to the drop in clinic and a blood sample was taken and she was checked into the hospital. The following are her blood results:

 pH 7.45 + 0.05 pCO2 (partial pressure of carbon dioxide) 49 mm Hg pO2 (partial pressure of oxygen) 90 - 100 mm Hg Hemoglobin - O2 saturation 94 - 100 % [HCO3-] 34 meq / liter

How would you classify this patient’s acid-base status? (metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, respiratory acidosis or respiratory alkalosis; be specific) (1 pts)

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What specifically caused this acid-base disturbance? (2 pts)

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What compensatory reactions would be expected to be happening in this patient in response to this acid-base disturbance? (2 pts)

d. List some other causes of this type of acid-base disturbance (1 pts)
{type answer here}

#### Homework Answers

Answer #1

A) Based on the blood results and history of consumption of calcium carbonate, the person is suffering from metabolic alkalosis.

B) This acid base disorder is caused by excessive consumption of calcium carbonate and milk which caused milk alkali syndrome which includes the triad of hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis and renal failure.

C) There will be compensatory respiratory acidosis. This can be deduced from the increase in concentration of partial pressure of carbon dioxide.

D) Some of the common causes of metabolic alkalosis are,

• Loss of gastric secretions
• Potassium wasting diuretics
• Overuse of antacids
• Recurrent vomiting
• Hyperaldosteronism
• Laxative abuse
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