1) In the Cnideria (jelly fish) have neuromuscular (nerve cells) cells in their ectoderm. These cells s evolve into a) the lungs, b) the pancreas and liver, c) the brain and spinal cord system, d) the digestive tract, e) is not important in the process of evolution.
2) The area of the Central Nervous System (CNS) that automatically regulates breathing and heart rate to maintain homeostasis is which of the following? a) Cerebral Cortex b) Medulla oblongata, c) Cerebellum, d) Nephron, e) spinal cord.
3)The evolution/embryonic development of the circulatory system is most closely related to a) the ectoderm, b) the specialization of cells derived from the Endoderm, c) the differentiation of cells from liver, d) the differentiation of stem cells from the original mesoderm that become mesothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. e) All are true.
4) The space between the endoderm and the ectoderm is important in the evolution of protostomes and deuterostomes because it provides the organism with: a) A fluid environments inside that is separated from the outside environment, b) a structure that allows for the homeostatic regulation of molecules and ions that pass into and out of the cells of the organism, c) provides an environment for communication between different cells and tissues. d) Maintains homeostasis for adjacent cells. e) All are true.
5) Growth hormone that is produced and secreted by the cells of the Anterior Pituitary Gland (note it is not part of the nervous system). It is a polymer of Amino acids that stimulates chondrocytes to make cartilage. Most likely the Growth Hormone is released byGolgi Apparatus: a)of the endoderm cells into the mesoderm, b) into the nucleus of the mesoderm cells, c) by the lysosomes of the ectoderm into the capillaries, d) of the epithelial cells from the endoderm into the capillaries., e) none of these are true.
6)Although it is not possible to be exact about when Porifera first appeared on earth, most scientists agree that they expanded (Evolved) rapidly and were successful because they had new genes that produced proteins responsible for: a) a colonial multicellular structure , b) Chlorophyll A, c) Krebs cycle to synthesize ATP, d) ATP hydrolysis, e) Three tissue layers
7) In the evolution of the vertebrates, the osteocytes are important in the formation of the: a) arthropods. b) CaPO4 skeleton. c) circulatory system d) skeleton of sharks and rays e) none of these are true.
8)The evolution of the deuterostomes involves the evolution of the heart. For the human (mammals), the number of chambers that connect to arteries is? a) 1, b) 2, c) 4, d) 2.5, e) 3.5
Why the answer is correct? please explain it for me,Thank you
1. e) is not important in the process of evolution.
jellyfish is an invertebrate animal, so it doesn't have any backbone and spine.
It has nerve cells that are evenly distributed in its body but there is no centralized collection of nerve cells, therefore; the brain is absent in them.
2. b) Medulla oblongata
The medulla oblongata is the most inferior part of the brain stem it merges at the base of the skull. And it regulates the respiratory rate and heart rate, therefore, we also called it is a respiratory Centre.
3.) The differentiation of stem cells from the original mesoderm that becomes mesothelial cells and smooth muscle cells.
Mesoderm is mostly related the development of the circulatory system.
the mesoderm divides into splanchnopleuric mesoderm which differentiates into mesothelioma, endothelium, and pericardium.
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