At the ecosystem level of biological organization which factors are considered (mark all that apply)? Biotic...

  1. At the ecosystem level of biological organization which factors are considered (mark all that apply)?
    1. Biotic factors
    2. Climate factors
    3. Abiotic factors
    4. Land use
    5. Animal populations
    6. Species interactions
  1. A food web is an example of what level of biological organization?
    1. Population
    2. Community
    3. Ecosystem
    4. Biome
  1. Coevolution is the reciprocal evolutionary change between interacting ___________, driven by selection.
    1. Individuals
    2. Populations
    3. Species
    4. Communities
  1. During co-evolution, a new trait is adopted because (mark all that apply)…
    1. It will benefit the species as a whole
    2. It confers an increase in fitness for that individual
    3. There is selection pressure from the other interacting species, which removes the other individuals in the population
    4. There are fitness differences linked to the trait
  1. Define the target of selection during co-evolution.
    1. The trait that correlates with fitness
    2. The thing (animal, abiotic factor, etc.) that causes fitness differences among individuals
    3. The other individual interacting with the first individual in a co-evolutionary arms race
    4. Any trait that gives a fitness advantage
    5. A trait that results in runaway selection
  1. What is the source of variation in which selection acts upon to give one species an advantage during a co-evolutionary arms race?
    1. The agent of selection
    2. Rapid speciation
    3. Mutation
    4. Natural selection
  1. True or False. All newt and Garter snake populations have undergone a co-evolutionary arms race.
    1. True
    2. False
  1. What is an example of a proximate question in relation to the Garter snake and newt co-evolutionary arms race (select all that apply)?
    1. How does the toxin work? How does it kill?
    2. Has this happened in other species?
    3. When in evolutionary time did snakes become resistant?
    4. What genes are responsible for the resistance in the snakes?
  1. Sustainability is likely to benefit humans for the following reasons (select all that apply)…
    1. The benefits in the long run are likely to outweigh the costs in the long run
    2. Future generations will have a better chance at coping with a growing global population
    3. In the short term farmers are able to maximize profits
    4. Intact ecosystems are likely to be more efficient than converted ones
  1. Co-evolution often results in extreme trait evolution and rapid speciation. Why?
    1. Because both the agent of selection and the target of selection are moving at the same time
    2. Biotic interactions cause greater selection pressure in comparison to abiotic natural selection
    3. Because co-evolution is a powerful evolutionary force
    4. Because if one partner in the co-evolutionary arms race doesn’t respond with another adaptation then they will die
  1. Pollination is an example of… (mark all that apply).
    1. Plant sexual reproduction
    2. A mutualism
    3. Co-evolution
    4. An adaptive radiation
    5. Asexual reproduction
  1. What percentage of flowering plants are dependent upon animals for pollination?
    1. 30%
    2. 60%
    3. 25%
    4. 70%
    5. 90%
  1. Pollen is produced by an anther, but where does it have to end up for it to successfully pollinate a flower?
    1. On the stigma
    2. Inside the carpel
    3. Inside the filament
    4. Inside the ovary
  1. What are lines of evidence that pollinators and flowering plants have co-evolved (mark all that apply)?
    1. There was an adaptive radiation of both insects and flowering plants around the same time in evolutionary history
    2. We see examples of extreme traits and rapid speciation in both flowering plants and pollinators
    3. Both pollinators and flowering plants benefit from the interaction so it is evolutionarily stable
    4. There is evidence of flowering plants shaping the behavior and morphology of pollinators
    5. There is evidence of pollinators shaping different floral traits such as color and scent
  1. If there are so many advantages with utilizing pollination, why do we still see plants that don’t utilize this strategy for sexual reproduction?
    1. Producing pollen incurs a cost
    2. More sperm can be created with the same amount of energy
    3. There are still environments left with enough water where pollination is not needed
    4. There are not enough pollinators available that is needed for pollination services
  1. True or False. Plants can not only cope with environmental stress through adaptation but they can also acclimate to the environment as well.
  1. How might climate change put both plants and pollinators at risk of a phenological mis-match?
    1. Flowering plants will start blooming earlier and earlier in the season
    2. Flowering plants won’t bloom when their pollinators are most active
    3. The duration of the blooming period for flowering plants will be too short
    4. Summers will be too long and there won’t be enough flowers blooming to sustain all of the pollinators
  1. Why as humans should we be interested in preserving ecosystem stability (mark all that apply)?
    1. Ecosystems provide services
    2. Ecosystems provide goods
    3. Ecosystems have what is called natural capital
    4. Intact ecosystems are more sustainable
    5. We can profit in the short term from ecosystem stability
  1. When animals form a selfish-herd what is each individual trying to accomplish?
    1. Each individual is helping one another to avoid being eaten
    2. Each individual clusters together to take up less space
    3. Each individual is attempting to reduce their domain of danger
    4. Each individual is try to move as far away from the predator as possible
  1. How do farmers continue to increase their output of food from larger and larger monoculture farms (mark all that apply)?
    1. They use pollination services of honey bees
    2. They reduce their ecological footprint
    3. They use more pesticides
    4. They use more fertilizers
    5. They irrigate more land with water from rivers

  1. Is a trophic cascade likely to occur if a keystone species is removed from an ecosystem?
    1. Yes
    2. No
  1. The reintroduction of the wolf back into Yellowstone National Park ultimately had what effects (mark all that apply)?
    1. Trees started growing back by the river banks
    2. Buffalo populations decreased
    3. Elk populations decreased
    4. There was more decomposition in the soil occurring
    5. Beaver populations increased
  1. What kind of plant-pollinator networks would have the most ecosystem stability?
    1. One with few strong connections between plant and pollinator
    2. One with many overlapping connections with a few pollinators
    3. One with many weak connections that has a lot of overlap between multiple pollinators with multiple plants
    4. One that has the most plants in it
    5. One that has the most pollinators in it
  1. What is one way in which plants prevent self-pollination?
    1. They have spatially separate male and female plants
    2. Male flowers are above the female flowers on the same plant
    3. Certain stigmas or morphology incompatible for certain pollen
    4. The male and female flowers bloom at the same time

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