1. A dust particle is inhaled and gets into an alveolus without being trapped along the way. Describe the path it
takes, naming all air passages from the external nares to the alveolus. What would happen to it after arrival in
2. Contrast the epithelium of the bronchi with that of the alveoli and explain how the structural difference is
related their functional difference.
3. List the two anatomical divisions of the respiratory system.
4. What would happen to the alveoli if surfactant were not produced?
5. When you inhale, does your chest expand because your lungs inflate, or do your lungs inflate because your
chest expands? Explain.
6. Explain why Boyle’s law is relevant to the action of the respiratory muscles.
7. Explain compliance and identify the factors that affect it.
8. Mark breaks a rib that punctures the chest wall on his left side. What do you expect will happen to his left
lung as a result? What about his right lung?
9. Explain Dalton’s law.
10. Explain Henry’s law.
11. Is oxygen loading onto hemoglobin a positive or negative feedback process?
12. What four factors affect the efficiency of alveolar gas exchange?
13. Explain how perfusion of a pulmonary lobule changes if it is poorly ventilated.
14. How is most oxygen transported in the blood, and why does carbon monoxide interfere with this?
15. What are three ways in which blood transports CO2?
16. As you exercise, hemoglobin releases more oxygen to active skeletal muscles than it does when those
muscles are at rest. Why?
17. What is the most potent chemical stimulus to respiration, and where are the most effective chemoreceptors
for it located?
18. Explain how changes in pulmonary ventilation can correct pH imbalances.
1. Name three major functions of the urinary system.
2. Which portions of a nephron are in the renal cortex?
3. Why don’t plasma proteins pass into the capsular space under normal circumstances?
4. Damage to which part of a nephron would interfere with the hormonal control of blood pressure?
5. Calculate the net filtration pressure in a patient whose blood COP is only 10 mmHg because of
hypoproteinemia. Assume other relevant variables to be normal.
6. Epinephrine is a small uncharged molecule derived from the amino acid tyrosine. It can bind weakly to
albumin in the plasma. What is the relative filterability of bound and unbound epinephrine and why?
7. Assume a person is moderately dehydrated and has low blood pressure. Describe the homeostatic
mechanisms that would help the kidneys maintain a normal GFR.
8. What factors influence net filtration pressure.
9. The reabsorption of water, Cl-, and glucose by the PCT is linked to the reabsorption of Na+, but in three very
different ways. Contrast the three mechanisms.
10. Explain why a substance appears in the urine if its rate of glomerular filtration exceeds the Tm of the renal
11. What effect would an increase in aldosterone have on the K+ concentration in urine?
12. What effect would a decrease in the Na+ concentration of filtrate have on the pH of the tubular fluid?
13. Predict how ADH (vasopression) hypersecretion would affect the sodium concentration of the urine, and
14. If you know the clearance value of substance X is 50 ml/min what can you tell me about its processing by
the nephron? What about substance Z with a clearance of 500 ml/min?
Question no 1
When the dust particle enter the nares it will cross the nasal division by nasal septum and pass into the pharynx that is the nasopharynx. Then from the nasopharynx it move into the oropharynx which is the next part in respiratory system.next is the larynx that the dust particles has to pass . After passing through the larynx it reaches the trachea . From trachea the dust particles moves into bronchi and then into the left or right bronchioles. Then it reach the alveolar duct and finally into alveolar sac
If it arrive the alveoli it can cause allergic reaction and it can also cause the specific plugin of mucus over the dust particles.
Question no 2
The epithelium of alveoli is thin when compared to bronchioles
The function is to help in exchange of the gases easily
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