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Prove that the number χ(G, n) of valid n-colorings of a multigraphs satisfies the formula χ(G,...

Prove that the number χ(G, n) of valid n-colorings of a multigraphs satisfies the formula χ(G, n) = χ(G − e, n) − χ(G/e, n). Explain the meaning of this formula when there are several edges connecting the endpoints of the edge e.

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