Question

- A company wants to impose a more secure password system for its
employees to use on the company’s network. The current policy
requires a minimum of seven characters. The system under
consideration requires a minimum of eight characters. The new
system will allow repetition of characters, but not doubling (e.g.,
the sequence 121 would be acceptable, but not 112).

For both password systems, assume the following:- Only alphanumeric characters can be used in the passwords, without any spaces or symbols.
- A lowercase letter is treated as a separate character from the uppercase equivalent.
- Only letters on a standard American keyboard will be accepted.
- Characters are used in a random order.

Using these guidelines, calculate the following:

- How many different passwords are possible for the current password requirements using seven characters?
- How many different passwords are possible for the proposed password requirements using eight characters without any doubling?
- Which option has more possible passwords? How many more? State your answer in terms of millions, billions, trillions, or quadrillions.
- The same company may impose the requirement that each password include at least one lowercase letter, at least one uppercase letter, and at least one number, but would allow doubled and repeated characters. How many different passwords are possible using eight characters under this proposal?

Answer #1

Each user on a computer system has a password, which is seven to
nine characters long, where each
character is an uppercase letter or a digit. Each password must
contain at least one digit or at
least one Uppercase letter. How many possible passwords are
there?

Suppose that a certain computer password is allowed to be from 8
to 12 characters long, and may contain only lowercase letters (a to
z), uppercase letters (A to Z), and numbers (0 to 9).
1. How many such passwords are possible?
2. How many such passwords are possible if you cannot repeat
characters?
3. How many such passwords are possible if you cannot repeat
characters, and you must include
at least one number?

For a certain computer program a password must be exactly 5
characters long. The first character can be any lowercase letter,
the second must be an uppercase letter, the third character must be
a number from 0 – 9, the fourth character can either be a lowercase
letter or a number 0 - 9, the fifth character has to be exactly the
same as the first character.
(6)
How many possible passwords are there?
What is the...

Imagine you are developing a software package that requires
users to enter their own passwords. Read the input as a C-string or
a string object. Your software requires that users’ passwords be
sent to special functions that will verify if the characters used
meet the following criteria:
The password should be at least six characters long.
The password should contain at least one uppercase and at least
one lowercase letter.
The password should have at least one digit.
Write a...

The AccessPlus system at ISU has the following policy for
creating a password:
-Passwords must be exactly 8 characters in length.
-Passwords must include at least one letter (a-z, A-Z) or
supported special character (@, #, $ only).
-All letters are case-sensitive.
-Passwords must include at least one number (0-9).
-Passwords cannot contain spaces or unsupported special
characters.
According to this policy, how many possible AccessPlus passwords
are available? (Round to the nearest
trillion)

Scenario: A computer system allows a user to
choose a password with a length of one to eight characters. A
system administrator needs to figure out how long a user’s password
should expire.
Assume that 1 million passwords can be tested per second by a
hacker. The hacker can guess a user’s password 24 hours a day and 7
days a week. A password should be expired if it has an equal or
greater than 10% probability of having been...

1- A particular automatic sprinkler system has two different
types of activation devices for each sprinkler head. One type has a
reliability of 0.87; that is, the probability that it will activate
the sprinkler when it should is 0.87. The other type, which
operates independently of the first type, has a reliability of
0.77. If either device is triggered, the sprinkler will activate.
Suppose a fire starts near a sprinkler head.
a) What is the probability that the sprinkler head...

2) Allowing (or requiring) users to use numerical digits
(including 0) and one of 28 “special characters” dramatically
increases the number of possible passwords. Furthermore, passwords
often are case-sensitive, effectively doubling the size of the
alphabet by defining 52 distinct letter characters.
Assuming that passwords are case-sensitive and can include
numerical digits and special characters, how many possible 6, 8 and
10 character passwords can be created? (8 points)
3) Allowing digits and special characters creates an enormous
number...

1. Use a tree diagram to show, or list, all possible outcomes
when you toss a coin 3 times.
2. Licence plates consist of either 3 letters and 3 numbers or 4
letters and 3 numbers. How many different licence plates can be
issued?
3a) In how many ways can a committee of
three be selected from 12 students?
b) In how many ways can a president, secretary, and treasurer be
chosen from 12 students?
4. How many ways...

QUESTION 1 Advanced Security Inc. was hired by the Treasury Bank
Inc. for securing their systems. The first thing they did was
implement the best practice if separation of domains. As a result
of this The bank had to get a new domain name. any change made in
the records points to only one party who could have made that
change. If you are a technical person, you must have office in a
particular area of the building. accessing outside...

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